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Foot and Ankle Injuries in Dance

      Dance is an art that combines athleticism with artistry. The demands placed on dancers' lower extremities leave them at risk for musculoskeletal injuries. Previous studies have reported injury incidence rates of 67% to 95% among professional ballet dancers and 17% to 24% in modern dancers [
      • Bronner S.
      • Ojofeitimi S.
      • Rose D.
      Injuries in a modern dance company—effect of comprehensive management on injury incidence and time loss.
      ,
      • Byhring S.
      • Bø K.
      Musculoskeletal injuries in the Norwegian national ballet: a prospective cohort study.
      ,
      • Garrick J.G.
      • Requa R.K.
      Ballet injuries: an analysis of epidemiology and financial outcome.
      ,
      • Garrick J.G.
      Early identification of musculoskeletal complaints and injuries among female ballet students.
      ,
      • Nilsson C.
      • Leanderson J.
      • Wykman A.
      • et al.
      The injury panorama in a Swedish professional ballet company.
      ,
      • Wiesler E.R.
      • Hunter D.M.
      • Martin D.F.
      • et al.
      Ankle flexibility and injury patterns in dancers.
      ]. The foot and ankle of a dancer are particularly vulnerable to injury and represent 34% to 62% of all injuries reported [
      • Bronner S.
      • Ojofeitimi S.
      • Rose D.
      Injuries in a modern dance company—effect of comprehensive management on injury incidence and time loss.
      ,
      • Byhring S.
      • Bø K.
      Musculoskeletal injuries in the Norwegian national ballet: a prospective cohort study.
      ,
      • Garrick J.G.
      • Requa R.K.
      Ballet injuries: an analysis of epidemiology and financial outcome.
      ,
      • Garrick J.G.
      Early identification of musculoskeletal complaints and injuries among female ballet students.
      ,
      • Nilsson C.
      • Leanderson J.
      • Wykman A.
      • et al.
      The injury panorama in a Swedish professional ballet company.
      ,
      • Wiesler E.R.
      • Hunter D.M.
      • Martin D.F.
      • et al.
      Ankle flexibility and injury patterns in dancers.
      ]. Female ballet dancers have a higher incidence of foot and ankle injuries than male ballet dancers or modern dancers, in part because they dance sur les pointes. In professional musical theater dancers, foot and ankle injuries have been reported as comprising 23% to 45% of all injuries [
      • Evans R.W.
      • Evans R.I.
      • Carvajal S.
      • et al.
      A survey of injuries among Broadway performers.
      ,
      • Evans R.W.
      • Evans R.I.
      • Carvajal S.
      Survey of injuries among West End performers.
      ,
      • Washington E.L.
      Musculoskeletal injuries in theatrical dancers: site, frequency, and severity.
      ].
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