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Physical Agents Used in the Management of Chronic Pain by Physical Therapists

      The primary role of physical therapy in the treatment of patients suffering from chronic pain is to prescribe, facilitate, and pace therapeutic activities for functional physical restoration [
      • Loeser J.D.
      • Turk D.C.
      Multidisciplinary pain management.
      ,
      • Witttink H.
      • Michel T.H.
      Chronic pain management for physical therapists.
      ,
      • Strong J.
      • Unruh A.M.
      • Wright A.
      • et al.
      Pain: a textbook for therapists.
      ,
      • Galer B.S.
      • Schwartz L.
      • Allen R.J.
      The complex regional pain syndromes: type I / reflex sympathetic dystrophy & type II causalgia.
      ]. Within their sphere of practice, physical therapists have at their disposal and the expertise to administer a wide choice of physical agents (frequently referred to as physical modalities) that may be used to attenuate pain [
      • American Physical Therapy Association
      Guide to physical therapy practice.
      ,
      • Wells P.E.
      • Frampton V.
      • Bowsher D.
      Pain management in physical therapy.
      ,
      • Belanger A.Y.
      Evidence based guide to therapeutic physical agents.
      ,
      • Cameron M.H.
      Physical agents in rehabilitation: from research to practice.
      ].
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